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Virtual panel and discussion:

The role of guarantees of origin and certificates for the development of the clean hydrogen industry

March 2021

CertifHy co-organized this panel discussion. It will take place next Tuesday,
March 16, 2021, 9:30 a.m. - 12:15 p.m. (CET). The event will be held in English. .

Register: e-world-essen


Record number of newly opened hydrogen refuelling stations in 2020 February 2021
Munich. In 2020, 107 hydrogen refuelling stations went into operation worldwide, more than ever before. 29 new hydrogen stations were opened in Europe, 72 in Asia, and 6 in North America. This is the result of the 13th annual assessment of, an information service of Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik (LBST). Four countries showed a particular dynamic in expansion: Ger-many extended its network by 14 hydrogen stations, China by 18, Korea by 26, and Japan by 28.

Press release


E-Fuels Online-Workshop February 2021
EU Horizon 2020 project “Heat-to-Fuel” is hosting an online workshop about e-fuels (power to gas, power to liquids) on 8 - 9 March. LBST expert on PtX, Patrick Schmidt, is contributing with an introductory presentation to the keynote session.
Information, program and registration (free of charge)


Publication of the DWV thesis paper "Entry into a green hydrogen economy" December 2020
The German Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association (DWV) published a thesis paper written by LBST in December. The LBST experts emphatically and convincingly show the necessity for the dawn of a green hydrogen age. In addition to classifying the current political debate about the future role of hydrogen, clear demands are made on business and politics for rapid and decisive action. (only in German)


CertifHy phase III December 2020

CertifHy phase III [phase I and II between 2014 - 2019] will implement a harmonized H2 Guarantee of Origin (GO) scheme across Europe and beyond, build a market for H2 GO trade in close collaboration with market actors, and design a Certification Scheme for compliance with RED II renewable fuels for transport.

Press release


Milestone for Metal Hydride Compression December 2020

The COSMHYC partners have developed an innovative metal hydride compressor prototype. The prototype was commissioned in October 2020 and a long-term test phase until February 2021 has started.

Press release

Interview COSMHYC XL mit Jan Zerhusen - Senior Project Manager LBST


Pioneering European PtH2 project HyBalance finalized – Plant will continue operations November 2020
HyBalance pioneering facility proves power-to-hydrogen to be a viable way to balance the grid and transfer renewables into industry and mobility. One of Europe’s first facilities for the production of hydrogen by PEM water electrolysis on an industrial scale has achieved a number of important results. Led by Air Liquide, Cummins/Hydrogenics, Centrica Energy Trading, LBST and Hydrogen Valley, the facility in Denmark has delivered 120 tons of hydrogen since 2018 and demonstrated its ability to balance the electricity grid. LBST has contributed to HyBalance success by coordinating the EU proposal development and was as the project partner responsible for the accompanying environmental performance assessment.


Study on energy prices, costs and their impact on industry and households November 2020
This Study on energy prices, costs and their impact on industry and households builds on earlier studies of these topics, and extends these to cover 2018 and 2019. Also, it groups EU data excluding the UK to give EU27 data. It furthermore extends the scope to include analyses of realised costs (power generation weighted average market price), notably by renewable energies, but also by conventional technologies. This includes analysis of impact of realised prices and support interventions on profitability and investments across power generation technologies in the power market in the EU and EU major trading partners.


Energy Subsidies November 2020
The study provides an analysis of the evolution of energy subsidies in the EU27 since 2008 and a comparison with non-EU27 G20 countries. It analyses the evolution of energy subsidy amounts across several dimensions: their purposes, including energy efficiency related subsidies, the energy carriers and sources, their categories and instruments, and the economic sectors. Furthermore, it provides a cross-country benchmarking with the EU27 and the G20 countries.


Analysis of government action for hydrogen in 16 countries and the EU September 2020
All strategies show a clear, strong, and lasting global momentum behind the universal recognition that hydrogen is an essential and indispensable element of a decarbonised energy system. The comprehensive LBST study for the World Energy Council Germany discusses opportunities and areas to watch for industry and identifies policy options needed to achieve the strategic aims.


10 year evaluation of September 2020
The total number of hydrogen stations has more than doubled in the last 5 years, marking the path towards more widespread commercial deployment in Europe, Asia, and California.


H2 in NECPs September 2020
A joint study by LBST and Trinomics for the FCH JU on the opportunities for hydrogen technologies considering the national energy and climate plans of the EU member states has been published, showing substantial potential benefits of hydrogen deployment in the coming decade.


Webinar presentation on PtL technologies July 2020

The third webinar of the series ‘Technologies of the Energy Transition’ organized by the EsadeGeo Center for Global Economy and Geopolitics and the Repsol Foundation focused on power-to-liquids (PtL). LBST expert Patrick Schmidt presented an overview on the state of the art of key PtL technologies, including use cases, challenges and opportunities.



ShipFuel Study – Electricity-based fuels for fuel cells in inland waterway shipping February 2020
Under what techno-economic conditions and in which market segments can electricity-based fuels be reasonably implemented in inland waterway shipping? This is the subject of the new “Electricity-based fuels for fuel cells in inland waterway shipping” study, which was commissioned by NOW GmbH and conducted by energy and the environment experts of Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik (LBST) together with DNV GL and Ingenieurbüro für Schiffstechnik. The analyses include the entire value chain, from the production of the fuel, its transport, distribution and storage to the bunkering process and storage, as well as the conversion of energy on board. In order to be able to analyse the techno-economic impacts of adapting various fuel and fuel cell technologies for inland waterway vessels, four reference vessel types were selected (cargo ship, barge, excursion boat and cabin vessel). The use of renewable fuels in fuel cell drives can avoid or significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and local air pollutants as well as unwanted noise and vibrations. This drive technology is therefore of particular interest for the use of ships in metropolitan areas. Taking this aspect into account, suitable regions for the market ramp-up and the development of necessary fuel infrastructures were also briefly examined in the study. German only! Contact: Martin Zerta (


83 new hydrogen refuelling stations worldwide February 2020
In 2019, 83 hydrogen refuelling stations went into operation worldwide, the number of public hydrogen stations has more than quadrupled in the past five years. 36 new hydrogen stations were opened in Europe, 38 in Asia, 8 in North America, and another one in the Arabian region. Germany expanded its network by 22 hydrogen stations, Korea by 18, and Japan by 11. This is the result of the 12th annual assessment of, an information service of Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik (LBST).


Power-to-Gas-Power-to-Gas expansion on steep growth pathAusbau auf steilem Wachstumskurs February 2020
At the beginning of the year 2019, LBST reported that power-to-gas (PtG) is increasingly used in a number of industrial size applications in Germany. At that time, 50 plants with a total electrical capacity of approx. 50 MW were in operation or planned. Since then, further PtG projects with a total of 600 MW electrolysis capacity have been announced in Germany – more than a tenfold increase within one year. Press release


Position paper on PtL for aviation published October 2019
The Global Alliance Powerfuels – a cross-sector alliance of companies and associations coordinated by the German Energy Agency (dena) – has called on the member states of the United Nations‘ International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to focus their climate protection and sustainability strategies on electricity-based, renewable fuels (PtX, e-fuels, powerfuels). The position paper gives an overview on challenges for climate change mitigation in aviation, a comparison of PtL jet fuel with other sustainable fuels, potential cost developments, and recommendations for developing PtL jet fuel market in the aviation sector. The initiative calls for an introduction of a successively increasing blending quota for renewable jet fuel. LBST expert, Patrick Schmidt, has contributed with fact-based information to the development of the position paper. Press release


Technology assessment study: Climate neutral truck traffic using algae-based fuels? September2019

The Office of Technology Assessment at the German Bundestag (TAB) has published a report in the context of their research program on „Sustainable potentials of the bio economy – 3rd generation biofuels“. LBST experts have supported the TAB with a background report on alternative fuels and drivetrains for heavy-duty vehicles.

TAB news

TAB brief

TAB study (German only)


LBST to present at power-to-hydrogen workshop on 8 October in Brussels July 2019
In the framework of the HyBalance project a full-day workshop on “Hydrogen, key enabler of wind power & industry leadership in Europe” will take place 8 October 2019 in Brussels. Patrick Schmidt of technology and strategy consultancy LBST will speak about environmental considerations of hydrogen production from wind power. The workshop is free-of-charge. Registration is now open. Follow the link above for further details, the agenda, and registration.


Analysis of a coordinated infrastructure implementation for supplying battery and fuel cell electric vehicles in Germany June 2019
A joint study of LBST and Fraunhofer IOSB AST assesses the required infrastructure for a large-scale introduction of battery and fuel cell electric vehicles as well as the resulting consequences for the German energy system and the distribution grid. A mix of battery and fuel cell electric vehicles reduces infrastructure cost compared to a scenario dominated by batteries, driven particularly by the large number of (private) charging points needed for BEVs. The study can be accessed here (German only)


Energy concept 2050 and integration of renewable fuels June 2019
LBST, jointly with partners BBH, FhG ISE, and IKEM, has prepared a major study for the German Ministry of Transport, elaborating guidelines for a future energy system with a focus on the transport sector. The study looks at a time horizon until 2050 and specifies measures for the time until 2030. A summary is now available here (German only).


Hydrogen Study Northrhine-Westfalia May 2019

The LBST-authored hydrogen study for the German federal state of Northrhine-Westfalia has been published. Key findings:

- Ambitious climate protection goals require large electrolysis capacities, seasonal storage and extensive energy transport.

- The increased use of hydrogen will minimise system costs in the long term and promote the integration of renewable energies.

- Hydrogen has positive economic impacts by creating additional value, avoiding energy imports and creating jobs.


Power-to-Gas plants in first commercial applications March 2019
An evaluation of the LBST Power-to-Gas (PtG) database shows that PtG-technology is advancing towards maturity and can increasingly be found in commercial applications. More than 50 PtG plants with a total electric capacity of more than 55 MW are in operation or planned throughout Germany. Further large projects in the three-digit MW range have already been announced.


Alternative fuels and powertrains for heavy-duty vehicles –
LBST study for a French industry foundation
March 2019

Heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) for long-distance transport are responsible for 22 % of the greenhouse gas emissions in French road transport. 95 % of road freight transport (tonnes-km) is done by trucks. The EU is currently transferring the concept of CO2 passenger car fleet emissions to heavy-duty vehicles. Heavy loads, high power demands, and long transport distances – which fuel/powertrain combinations are suited to contribute to short, medium, and long-term targets? What are effective levers for the introduction of most promising alternative fuels, powertrains, and infrastructure? An LBST-led comparative analysis for a French industry foundation is addressing these questions, and more. The results were presented in the framework of the European Cluster for Mobility Solutions and discussed with vehicle manufacturers, suppliers, and logistic companies from France and Europe. The study is available upon request from LBST.


Study on Energy Prices, Costs and Subsidies and their Impact on Industry and Households February 2019
This study for the European Commission, DG Energy, answered the question: How did energy prices, costs and subsidies develop over the last decade in the EU and G20 countries and what was their impact on industry and households? The study was led by our partner Trinomics with contributions from Cambridge Econometrics and Enerdata. LBST provides professional quality assurance to the study including quality control over the full life-cycle of the study based on pre-defined quality criteria, and independent critical review of the deliverables in this project. This study will serve as direct input for the European Commission to shape future European energy policies. The project involved extensive stakeholder consultation and high-level quantitative and qualitative research.


Highest increase of hydrogen refuelling stations in Germany worldwide in 2018 again February 2019
In Germany, 17 new public refuelling stations started operation in 2018, further consolidating Germany as the country with the second largest public hydrogen refuelling infrastructure globally with 60 public stations, ahead of the USA (42 stations) and only surpassed by Japan (96 public stations). A total of 48 hydrogen refuelling stations were opened worldwide in the past year. This is the result of the eleventh annual assessment by, a website of Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik (LBST) and TÜV SÜD.


The role of trans-European gas infrastructure in the light of the 2050 decarbonisation targets December 2018
The required sharp decrease in CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 may drastically reduce the share of natural gas in the European energy mix. Jointly with its partners Trinomics, E3modelling, and Artelys, LBST authored a for the European Commission study looking at the trans-European gas infrastructure and possible futures for gases (including biomethane and hydrogen). The study including an overview presentation is available here.


German H2-RCS Roadmap 2025 December 2018
Recommendations for a “German H2-RCS Roadmap 2025” have been presented by Martin Zerta (LBST) at the General Assembly of the National Innovation Programme (NIP) for hydrogen and fuel cells in Berlin on 6 Dec 2018. An accompanying brochure summarises the essential aspects and findings of a comprehensive study which was commissioned by the national hydrogen and fuel cells organization NOW GmbH and carried out by LBST in cooperation with The CCS Global Group, TÜV SÜD Industrie Service GmbH and Zentrum für BrennstoffzellenTechnik ZBT. It can be downloaded here (German only).


Intelligent Sector Coupling November 2018
Recommendations for a “German H2-RCS Roadmap 2025” have been presented by Martin Zerta (LBST) at the General Assembly of the National Innovation Programme (NIP) for hydrogen and fuel cells in Berlin on 6 Dec 2018. An accompanying brochure summarises the essential aspects and findings of a comprehensive study which was commissioned by the national hydrogen and fuel cells organization NOW GmbH and carried out by LBST in cooperation with The CCS Global Group, TÜV SÜD Industrie Service GmbH and Zentrum für BrennstoffzellenTechnik ZBT. It can be downloaded here (German only).Study for Open Grid Europe und Amprion With the help of sector integration, electricity from renewable sources (PV and wind energy) is simultaneously converted into renewable gases such as hydrogen or synthetic methane. In a study commissioned by the gas and electricity transport grid operators Open Grid Europe and Amprion, LBST has assessed the macro-economic and environmental effects of a broad introduction of Power-to-Gas (PtG) in comparison to an “all-electric” world for Germany by 2050 and in sector-specific detail, sector by sector. An executive summary here.


LBST to discuss electrolysis and its role in massive PtX deployment October 2018
Renewable electricity-based fuels (e-fuels) are among the topics that will be discussed in the upcoming 16th International Conference on Renewable Mobility „Fuels of the Future“. LBST expert Patrick Schmidt is invited to present and discuss about the role of electrolysis for massive deployment of PtX fuel pathways. The presentation is part of a conference session on renewable electricity and biomass-based fuel production chains. Further information about the conference are available here


HyBalance – Megawatt power-to-hydrogen plant inaugurated September 2018
The HyBalance plant was inaugurated on 3 September in Hobro (Denmark). A milestone in this 1.2 megawatt-scale project for the production of power-to-hydrogen has thus been reached. The mayor of Mariagerfjord Municipality, where the plant is located, cut the ribbon. Among the guests were customers and the partners behind the HyBalance project: Air Liquide, Hydrogenics, Neas, LBST and Hydrogen Valley as well as European FCH JU and Danish EUDP, which have both supported the project with funding. Impressions from the event and further information can be sought from LBST technology and strategy experts are contributing with the environmental performance analysis to the HyBalance PtH2 project. First results are expected in 2019. The EU project is scheduled to run until 2020.


Germany had the highest increase of hydrogen refuelling stations worldwide in 2017 January 2018
Munich. In Germany, 24 public refuelling stations have gone into operation in 2017, turning the German public hydrogen refuelling infrastructure into the second largest globally with 45 public stations, ahead of the USA (40 stations) and only surpassed by Japan with 91 public stations. A total of 64 stations were opened worldwide in the past year. This is the result of the tenth annual assessment by, a website of Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik (LBST) and TÜV SÜD.


Paper on PtL jet fuel published January 2018
Severe reductions in the greenhouse gas intensity of aviation fuels are required to get a growing aviation sector on a flightpath compliant with the Paris Climate Agreement. To contribute to the debate on sustainable alternative jet fuels, energy and sustainability experts of Munich-based consultancy LBST have in close collaboration with aviation specialists Bauhaus Luftfahrt e.V. jointly publish a review paper on “Power-to-Liquids as Renewable Fuel Option for Aviation”.


German industry alliance proposes investment plan for PtX technology deployment December 2017
Audi, Ontras, and Uniper together with the Aviation Initiative for Renewable Energy in Germany (aireg), the German Association for Gas and Water (DVGW) and the German Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association (DWV) including its expert commission Performing Energy have formed the “Power-to-X Alliance”. Jointly, they have proposed a market introduction program to finance power-to-x plants with a total capacity of 1,500 MW for the production of green power-to-hydrogen, power-to-methane, and power-to-liquids. To lever the investments necessary for large-scale deployment, the Power-to-X Alliance proposes a certificate system to operate between 2019 and 2027 with a total volume of €1.1 billion. LBST is member of the DWV and has together with the German Energy Agency dena recently authored an e-fuels study with energy transition scenarios for EU transport that is consistent with the conclusions drawn by the Power-to-X Alliance.


CertifHy launched successfully the Stakeholder Platform November 2017
More than 100 stakeholder convened on 20 November 2017 for the first Stakeholder Platform plenary session in the EU project CertifHy in Brussels. With financial support from the European Commission and the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH 2 JU), CertifHy is to implement the first EU-wide Guarantees of Origin (GO) for green hydrogen and pilot test it in four hydrogen production plants. Interested stakeholders are invited to contribute and may still apply to one of the four Working Groups. LBST is convener of CertifHy Working Group 1 which comprises experts in the development of the GO scheme documents and procedures.


Sharp Growth of Hydrogen Refuelling Stations numbers in Europe within the next 10 years November 2017
Reports about the opening of hydrogen refuelling stations (HRS) go through the press at ever shorter intervals. Constantly, new and larger projects are being announced. Is this a trend?


E-Fuels – The potential of electricity-based fuels for low emission transport in the EU November 2017
New study by the German Energy Agency (dena) and Ludwig-Bölkow-Sytemtechnik (LBST) on behalf of the Verband der Automobilindustrie (VDA).


EU project CertifHy goes into the implementation phase October 2017
The EU project CertifHy goes into the implementation phase. For the first time, a Europe-wide detection system for green hydrogen is to be set up and tested in pilot operation.


COSMHYC August 2016
The project COSMHYC, funded by the European Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU), took up its work in January 2017 for 3 years of effort towards the development of innovative technologies for hydrogen refuelling stations. LBST will be responsible for the techno-economic analysis. The 5 consortium partners from 3 European countries (Germany, France and Denmark), jointly covering the whole value chain from development to industrial implementation in the field of hydrogen refuelling stations.


92 new hydrogen refuelling stations worldwide in 2016 February 2017
92 new hydrogen refuelling stations have opened throughout the world in 2016, the largest number of new stations ever. As of January 2017, the total number of hydrogen refuelling stations in operation is 274 including four opened at the beginning of this year. This is the result of the ninth annual assessment by, a website of Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik (LBST) and TÜV SÜD.


LBST and partners develop “Integrated Energy Concept 2050“ for the German Federal Transport Ministry January 2017
On the premises of the German Transport Ministry on 12 January 2017, the project “Integrated Energy Concept 2050” had its kick-off. Its objective is to develop a roadmap for the regulatory environment on the basis of robust reference scenarios: How will energy supply and demand of all sectors develop, how will sector coupling develop until 2050? Which decisions have to be taken at which point in time in order to ensure optimum use of more and more renewable electricity in transport, and also in space heating and industry? The “Energiewende” is lagging behind in transport: CO2 emissions in transport are stagnating. In order to achieve the goal of a 80% to 95% reduction until 2050 more action is required. In this context, the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure has commissioned the study for an integrated energy concept 2050. It has selected an integrated approach covering all consumption sectors as it is to be expected that an integrated energy concept including electricity, transport, heating and industry will be the most sustainable and thus future-oriented. The study, which is coordinated by NOW (National Organisation Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology), will be led by Becker Büttner Held (BBH) in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), the Institute for Climate Protection, Energy and Mobility (IKEM) as well as Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH (LBST). On 12 January the kick-off took place at the Transport Ministry with some 40 participants from parliament, ministries, associations, industry, federal states and the European Commission discussing the objectives and approaches of the study. These stakeholders are organized in three boards accompanying and advising the consortium in regular meetings.


Sustainable Materials Handling – news from the HyLIFT-EUROPE project January 2017
LBST is the coordinator of HyLIFT-EUROPE, the largest European demonstration of hydrogen fuel cell materials handling vehicles to date. The project aim and recent successes are covered in a headline article in the Industry Europe magazine (there on page 6).


German delegation presents PtL study to UN aviation organisation December 2016
The German Federal Transport Ministry (BMVI) has introduced to CAEP members from the UN International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) the study ‘Power-to-Liquids – Potentials and Perspectives for the Future Supply of Renewable Aviation Fuel’. The study was commissioned by the German Environment Agency (UBA) and jointly prepared by LBST and Bauhaus Luftfahrt experts. The PtL technology offers the potential for strong environmental benefits, provided that electricity, CO2 and water from renewable sources are used.


Comparing CNG and LNG as fuels in long-haul truck transport June 2016
Can natural gas be used as a future fuel for long-haul truck transport? An LBST expert assessment for Open Grid Europe assesses technologies (engines and CNG tanks including the regulations for their vehicle integration), CNG fuelling stations with high capacity, infrastructure roll-out options, environmental aspects and costs in comparison to LNG and diesel long haul trucks. (German only)


Franco-German Innovation Award – LBST among top three finalists June 2016
An LBST study has been nominated for the final round of the Franco-German Innovation Award for Renewable Energies. The case study ‘Renewable power-to-gas for use in refineries’ describes the potential use of renewable hydrogen in French and German crude-oil refineries and its benefits for the energy transition. The analysis was developed by LBST with its partner Hinicio and commissioned by Paris-based Tuck Foundation. On the occasion of the Franco-German Business Conference, the nominees presented their projects on 14 June at the French Embassy in Berlin. The winning project was “REstable” dealing with control strategies for virtual power plants. Congratulations!


LBST presented power-to-hydrogen for refineries at JRC workshop May 2016
On the occasion of a workshop on 'Power-to-Hydrogen: key challenges and next steps' - organized by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre at CEN/CENELEC premises in Brussels - Patrick Schmidt presented the case of renewable power-to-hydrogen production for use in crude-oil refineries. The presentation gives an overview over results from a recent expertise for the Tuck Foundation (Paris) as well as recommendations for the development of the regulatory framework to foster the use of renewable power-to-hydrogen in refineries.


Danish minister cuts first sod for power-to-gas demo HyBalance April 2016
The Danish Minister for Climate, Energy and Building, Lars Chr. Lilleholt attended the groundbreaking ceremony for the power-to-gas plant in Hobro/Denmark. The plant is part of the EU/Danish HyBalance demonstration project. It will deliver hydrogen from 2017. LBST is contributing to this project with environmental performance analyses.


Fiftyfour new hydrogen refuelling stations worldwide in 2015 March 2016
Fiftyfour new hydrogen refuelling stations have opened throughout the world in 2015. The total number of hydrogen refuelling stations in operation is 214. This is the result of the eighth annual assessment by, a website of Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik (LBST) and TÜV SÜD.


Power-to-gas: Short term and long term opportunities to leverage synergies between the electricity and transport sectors Februar 2016
A joint study for the French Tuck Foundation LBST with its partner Hinicio assess potential opportunities leverage synergies between the electricity, the transport, and industry sectors through the use of power-to-gas technology with renewable electricity. The assessment includes technical and economic considerations with a geographical scope on France and Germany. LBST provided Germany specific inputs on regulatory, technology, and economy. A particular application case assessed the potential of green hydrogen as a feedstock for refineries, analysing resulting renewable power demands, electrolyser cost reduction, greenhouse gas emission reduction, and impact on conventional fuel costs.


Demonstrating the use of green hydrogen in energy systems - Press Release February 2016
One of Europe’s most advanced hydrogen facilities will be established in Denmark. Air Liquide, Hydrogenics, LBST, Neas Energy, Hydrogen Valley/CEMTEC and the European Joint Technology Initiative have signed a contract to build one of Europe’s largest facilities for production of green hydrogen.



Renewables in Transport 2050 – Empowering a sustainable mobility future with zero emission fuels from renewable electricity – Europe and Germany January 2016
A study by LBST mandated by and in collaboration with the Research Association for Combustion Engines e.V. (FVV).
Three explorative fuel/drive scenarios (PTL, FVV, eMob) were defined and combined with two distinct transportation demand scenarios (HIGH, LOW) comprising all major vehicle categories (cars, buses, trucks, trains, ships, planes). The primary energy base for the fuels was modelled as a target scenario, assuming a 100% renewable supply base by 2050 and focusing on renewable electricity for battery-electric vehicles and overhead lines, and PtH2, PtCH4, as well as PtL for fuel cell-electric and internal combustion engine (hybrid) vehicles. An LBST-model calculated the resulting fuel demands, renewable electricity demands, fuel production and distribution costs, fuel-related greenhouse gas emission avoidance costs, and the cumulated investments until 2050 for an energy transition in transport.

FVV - Download


Study on Hydrogen from Renewable Resources in the EU December 2015
Hydrogen can be produced from a broad range of renewable energy sources, providing low or zero emission energy to all energy consuming sectors. At present, the technology of choice to produce renewable ‘green’ hydrogen is water electrolysis using renewable electricity. This study focuses on renewable hydrogen generation other than electrolysis, describing the technologies involved, characterising their technical capabilities, maturity, and economic performance, and assessing their future potential.


Integrated action plan for climate protection in Munich November 2015
Jointly with its partners FutureCamp Climate and Green City Energy, LBST supports the city of Munich in its integrated action plan for climate protection, uniting all climate protection related activities of the city government. Measures and actions towards Munich’s climate protection goals will be discussed and developed over the course of 8 topical workshops with city officials and selected stakeholders.


Hydrogen rail infrastructure October 2015
LBST, jointly with EY Ernst & Young, Becker Büttner Held, TÜV SÜD Rail, SIGNON Deutschland, and IFOK supports the German Ministry of Transport within a research project assessing requirements for an integration of hydrogen supply into the German rail infrastructure. The project considers all technical, legal, and economical issues and aims at developing suitable recommendations.


Modern power grids September 2015
The German Büro für Technikfolgenabschätzung beim Deutschen Bundestag (Office of Technology Assessment at the German Bundestag) has published its report on “Modern power grids as key element in a sustainable supply of energy”. In cooperation with TÜV SÜD, LBST energy experts Patrick Schmidt and Tetyana Raksha have contributed to the TAB Report with a background study on “Modern Technologies for the Optimisation of Electricity Grids". In the TAB Report a comprehensive overview on technical and operational options, environmental performance, and benefit/risks with regard to the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) is given.


Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: Seventeen new hydrogen refuelling stations worldwide in 2014 April 2015
Seventeen new hydrogen refuelling stations have opened throughout the world in 2014. As of March 2015, the total number of hydrogen refuelling stations in operation is 184. This is the result of the seventh annual assessment by, a website of Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik (LBST) and TÜV SÜD. Several countries are planning a targeted development of their hydrogen refuelling infrastructure. As a result, the number of publicly accessible stations will increase further. Press release


Renewables in transport – Potentials and perspectives of various renewable energies and transport fuel consumption March 2015
A study by German institutes LBST, DLR, IFEU and DBFZ in the framework of the Scientific Advisory to the Federal Mobility and Fuels Strategy (MFS) to the German Transport Ministry (BMVI. Available in German language.


LNG in Germany: Liquefied Natural Gas and Renewable Methane in Heavy-Duty Road Transport September 2014
A short expertise commissioned by the German Energy Agency (dena). LBST contributed with background analyses in terms of life-cycle analyses for the production, transport, distribution, and use of LNG as a transport fuel. The dena White Paper contributes to the discussion about the role of LNG and renewable methane in transport in order to achieve energy and climate targets as well as diversification of the fuel base of freight road transports. The dena White Paper thus describes the chances, challenges, and possible next steps for introducing LNG in heavy-duty vehicles.


The role of hydrogen and fuel cells for the German „Energiewende“ – status and perspectives June 2014
Study for the Landesagentur für Elektromobilität und Brennstoffzellen-technologie Baden-Württemberg GmbH. The study provides an overview over the current status of developments and discussions of the role of hydrogen and fuel cells in the German “Energiewende” (energy transition) from a technical and a strategic perspective. (German only)


Power-to-Gas (PtG) in transport - Status quo and perspectives for development May 2014
Power-to-Gas (PtG) . A short study by German institutes LBST, IFEU, DLR, and DBFZ in the framework of the Scientific Advisory to the Federal Mobility and Fuels Strategy (MFS) to the German Transport Ministry (BMVI).


Well-to-Wheels (WTW) Analysis of Future Automotive Fuels and Powertrains in the European Context April 2014
LBST has been instrumental in finalizing the new version 4a of the Well-to-Tank report for the JEC (JRC, CONCAWE, EUCAR) consortium. Jointly with the Tank-to-Wheel report, it evaluates the greenhouse gas emissions and energy efficiency of European transport fuel and powertrain options, covering the time horizon 2010 to 2020+. The study results are regularly updated by incorporating best available data on process improvements reported by relevant stakeholders. The results provide a scientifically robust and broadly accepted European reference on fuel and energy pathways.


On the road to sustainable energy supply in road transport – potentials of CNG and LPG as transportation fuels“ April 2014
A short study by German institutes LBST, IFEU, DLR, and DBFZ in the framework of the Scientific Advisory to the Federal Mobility and Fuels Strategy (MFS). The study has been initiated by the German Federal Transport Ministry (BMVBS) to feed upcoming discussions on the post 2018 energy taxation regime (EnergieStG) of gaseous fuels for transport. To this end, the economics and environmental performance of CNG and LPG as transport fuels for cars have been analysed; recommendations for the future energy taxation have been derived.


Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: Eleven new hydrogen refuelling stations worldwide in 2013 March 2014
Eleven new hydrogen refuelling stations opened throughout the world in 2013, bringing the total number of hydrogen refuelling stations in operation to 186 as of March 2014. This is the result of the sixth annual assessment by, a website of Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik (LBST) and TÜV SÜD. According to the information available to Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik, a total of 72 hydrogen refuelling stations are currently operated in Europe, 67 in North America, one in South America, and 46 in Asia. Press release


The Impact of the Oil Price on EU Energy Prices March 2014

Study for the European Parliament. Oil prices have increased considerably over the past years at global level, while natural gas and other energy prices have seen differing developments in each world region. The present report examines the level of impact of high oil prices on European energy prices and analyses the underlying mechanisms. Policy options to reduce this impact are discussed.

Executive Summary


Results of the FVV Fuel Study on "Future Fuels for Combustion Engines & Gas Turbines" November 2013
An LBST expertise commissioned by the Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungskraft-maschinen e.V. (FVV Research Association for Combustion Engines). Target question for this study was, which fuels may become relevant in the foreseeable future in order to derive research and development needs for next generation combustion engines and turbines. To this end, the (alternative) fuel landscape has been characterised and 10 fuel pathways – among others unconventional fossil and electricity-based renewable fuels, including power-to-gas and power-to-liquids – have been selected by the study-accompanying FVV task force members for a comprehensive assessment with regard to environmental performance, market aspects, economics, availability and potentials, and infrastructure requirements. Most of the fuels selected for detailed analyses differ significantly in their physical/chemical properties from the reference fuels established today. The number of different fuels may rather be expected to increase worldwide in the foreseeable future. Combustion engines and turbines can address many of the upcoming challenges in meaningful ways that arise from changes in the energy system in general and specific applications therein, e.g. “Energiewende”, pollutant emission reductions etc. For this, taking a broad fuel portfolio into account is essential. Research needs in the use of novel fuels – be it neat or blended – in optimised combustion engines and gas turbines are evident, especially with regard to novel system contexts (e.g. hybridisation), application contexts (e.g. fluctuating renewable supply, assured power provision), and targets (efficiency, emissions, costs).


Roadmap for the Realisation of a Wind Hydrogen Economy in the Lower Elbe Region August 2013
Using the Lower Elbe region as a model, a commercial implementation concept for the generation, storage, transport, and use of wind hydrogen was examined under the auspices of ChemCoast e.V. For this comprehensive study, LBST has been joining hands with accounting firm Ernst & Young GmbH and leading energy law firm Becker Büttner Held. Due to the high density of hydrogen producers and consumers the area is in a key position for establishing a common hydrogen market benefitting all players. Providing a core infrastructure (pipeline and storage cavern) and a stable legal framework creates exciting perspectives for further future growth of the region: location-securing effects for the local chemical industry; further development of internationally leading pilot activities in the use of hydrogen in the transport sector; and fundamental support of the German energy turnaround by systemically relevant energy storage capacities.


Short Study: Using CNG and LPG as a vehicle fuel August 2013
Also part of the efforts towards devising the German mobility and fuels strategy, this study examines facts, arguments, and boundary conditions for a continued public support of CNG and LPG as a vehicle fuel.


Short Study: Biomass Potential and Competing Use Juli 2013
LBST, jointly with DLR, IFEU, and DBFZ, provides expert support to the German Federal Ministry of Transport in devising the German mobility and fuels strategy. As part of that process, a study on competition between cultivation of food crops, animal feed, and energy crops and potential ecological and social consequences has been published, including an outlook on German and international biomass potentials (German only)


Hungarian Shale Gas – Impacts on the Environent and Human Health May 2013
Unconventional gas exploitation implies a higher level of potential risks and threats on the environment and on human health than conventional gas exploitation. This present analysis provides a general risk appraisal by identifying possible impacts of shale gas extraction in a selected Eastern European area.


Fossil and Nuclear Fuels – the Supply Outlook March 2013
Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH (LBST) has led efforts for a study covering the global supply situation for global fossil fuel reserves commissioned by the Energy Watch Group, a non-partisan international network of scientists and parliamentarians. The study shows that availability of cheap and hitherto abundant fossil fuels is nearing its end. The results are based on a thorough analysis of reliable data on existing exploration activities, which are used to assess future development.


Wind-Hydrogen-Applications in the region Unterelbe January 2013
Is it economically feasible to convert wind power into hydrogen? How can this innovative technology be used along the entire value-chain? In an extensive study for ChemCoast e.V., LBST; BBH und E&Y are performing a market analysis and developing real-world business plans for private market participants.


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